The acute problem of urban public transport was relevant until the middle of the last decade. She gave birth to interesting engineering solutions to the automotive industry.
Taking the «assault» of buses and trams, eliminated «with meat» buttons, an unpleasant smell from a neighbor, to which you «pressed» in a crush, and of course, pickpockets, flying in crowded transport. All these negative moments of the trip in public passenger transport are still quite typical and many citizens have so far remain in memory.
Today, when the country’s motorization approached 300 cars per 1000 inhabitants, the problem of the problem passed into another plane, namely, the inability to skip all this mass of cars along the existing street-road network. But then, when an average in the country had only 50 cars per 1,000 citizens, the major burden fell on public transport.
It is impossible to say that the authorities did nothing to solve an acute social problem. Tens of thousands of units per year made a passenger rolling stock on the bus, trolleybus and tram plants of the country. In huge quantities, Hungarian buses «Ikarus» were imported, Czech trams «Tatra» and Trolleybuses «Skoda». But still there is not enough transport.
We want to open one interesting page of the «struggle» with the overflow of public transport of the country, as they have tried to increase the passenger complex to solve the problem.
It is noteworthy that in our country, one of these ways have become the coupled two buses, or two trolleybuses, or two tram car. Trolleybuses and trams were easier to clutch. Therefore, most often to this method were resorted to tram-trolleybus offices. Even such a term appeared — a mixture that means the hitch of many units.
The most popular hitch of trolley buses were in the cities of Russia and Ukraine. Two trolley buses «Skoda» or Ziu, two trams of KTM or Tatra. There were even experiments on the coupling of two buses.
But still the radical and effective solution began the origin of the production of «accordion» — articulated rolling stock consisting of two sections. The first were the buses from Hungary «Ikarus-180», which arrived to us at the end of the 60s early 70s of the last century. However, in a number of metropolitan routes, the harmonic trolleybuses of weld appeared on a number of capital routes. Then there was a change of generations and the articulated model «Ikarus-280» appeared on the streets of domestic cities. The salon of this urban articulated bus is a particularly large capacity, accompanied 180 passengers. Calculation of the capacity was made in terms of the norm of the standard 8 people per 1 square meter. Try to mentally carry out such an experiment — silence the square with a side of 1 meter and imagine that it’s 8 people. That is, passengers were taught as «herring in barrel» with this standard.
In general, even Hungarian articulated buses did not solve the transport problem of domestic cities. And here is a distant official in the Ministry of Automobile Transport of the country offered Hungarian partners to design a superstar capacity bus, adding another section and another harmonic. That is, from a two-section to make a three-section bus.
SUPERLINE BUS 23 meters, with three sections was ready in 1988. He was called Ikarus-293. The three-section bisocynenik received a diesel engine Raba D2156, forged to 250 liters. with. But, by and large, such power was clearly lacked for Mahina a length of 23 meters, and already at the beginning of the tests it became clear that the power unit would hardly cope with his duties and overheats the load.
When creating a giant buse, engineers did not invent the bike and repeated the design of the classic city model Ikarus-280: the motor and automatic transmission were in the so-called «tractor» — the first section, under the floor of the cabin, the lead was the second axis. As for two trailers, they did not have any communication with the power unit. The driver could, if necessary, to twist the axis of the second trailer, however, these manipulations had to be carried out as an unauthorized wheel, but traggings from the joint node. Naturally, it required a certain qualifications from the driver, but the radius of the reversal of «Ikarus 293» was 24 meters, just a half meters more than the traditional «harmonica».
The initiator of the appearance of Ikarus-293 was the Soviet Union, which had a transport problem, but when the bus was ready, the USSR had problems. It turned out that such Mahina simply not by pocket municipalities and the new bus was not the affairs.
Hungarians to send in scrap metal Ikarus-293 did not dare. They exported a bus to various international exhibitions, where he was a «star» car dealership and produced Furior. But no one was in a hurry to buy it. In the end, he fell on a joke in the factory territory, and quietly expected his fate. But the continuation of the history of the three-specialist was quite unusual. Ikarus signed an agreement for the delivery of buses to Iran. Together with ordinary city buses, Ikarus-293 decided to send in Tehran. So the car was in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The bus was upgraded, changed the Hungarian Raba engine to a more powerful unit 6-cylinder turbodiesel MAN D2866 (280 l. P.). The second door in the first section was shifted forward. In addition, the bus repainted from standard gray-blue in yellow-pink color.
It is known that Ikarus 293 faithfully served for the benefit of the residents of Tehran from 1992 to 2009. And then he was retired. But he survived and is now in the vessels of the museum in Tehran.
Here is the history of the bus that ordered the USSR.
But the whole, the history of three-section buses has a chic continuation. Only not in native fenats, but on the other end of the planet — in the cities of Latin America. The fact is that the cities there are poor, the federation of them does not assist, and they solve their transport problem at the expense of the so-called «metrobus», or a high-speed bus having a BRT abbreviation (Bus Rapid Transit).
On the BRT lines, three-section buses were fit very successfully. Only the chassis for them took from Scania, Volvo and others. The first such city, where BRT was built by the capital of Parana in Brazil Kuritiba. And the entire system designed, calculated and applied interesting solutions Architect Jaime Lerner.
Then the BRT system began to build in many cities of Brazil, and then the entire continent south of Rio Grande. The most interesting system works in the capital of Columbia Bogota.
In Kuritib, there are three-section buses of two types — with a length of 28 meters and with a length of 25 meters. See, they even exceed the dimensions of the oscarus — 293.
Many domestic tourists, visiting Switzerland, are also surprised by the presence of three-section buses and trolley buses in this country.
In Russia, the need for such giant buses disappeared. We still have three sexual trams «Vityaz» and «Chizhik» who work in Moscow and St. Petersburg. It is unlikely that we will have such a huge bus. Passenger traffic now do not need to bring a huge number to the factory pass. No times now.